The Johns Hopkins study used a conditional knock-out in mice to specifically suppress the expression of the insulin receptor in osteoblasts, the bone-forming cells of the skeletal system. As the mutant mice aged they became fat, had elevated blood sugar, and were glucose intolerant and resistant to insulin, mirroring the picture of diabetes in humans. The researchers found that the mutant mice had fewer osteoblasts, reduced bone formation and lower levels of circulating undercarboxylated osteocalcin (the active form of the hormone). The study showed that signalling via the insulin receptor in osteoblasts suppressed Twist2, an inhibitor of osteoblast development, and enhanced expression of osteocalcin, a mediator of insulin sensitivity and secretion.
The Columbia study links the complete bone remodelling process to energy regulation. Osteocalcin is released from osteoblasts predominantly in an inactive, carboxylated form. The researchers demonstrated that insulin signalling in osteoblasts stimulates release of inactive osteocalcin and activates osteoclasts, which activate the osteocalcin via decarboxylation in a bone-resorption-dependent manner.
The studies clearly have potential impact on human therapy, although significant questions remain. As yet the receptor for undercarboxylated osteocalcin is unknown, so the mechanism by with the hormone stimulates insulin release is unclear. Further work will be necessary to understand the interplay between skeletal- and metabolic-homeostasis in humans.
The two papers are previewed in Cell.